Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Bowling for Columbine Essay Example

Bowling for Columbine Essay Example Bowling for Columbine Paper Bowling for Columbine Paper Michael Moore has created some of this centurys most provocative films, including Roger Me, The Big One, and Bowling for Columbine.These three films hold one thing in common: They are all non-fiction.If they were to be labeled into one genre, or if one were to search for them in a video store,documentary commonly associated with these films.Moores most recent film, Bowling for Columbine, won the Best Documentary Oscar at the 2003 Academy Awards.But what exactly is a documentary, and should Moores work be classified in such a genre? Websters Dictionary defines a documentary as a film or TV program presenting the facts about a person or event.Moore does in fact present facts in his film, including interviews with various people, most notably, Charlton Heston.Additionally, he leads us along his journey throughout the country (and Canada) to find out why America is so obsessed with guns.The facts Moore presents certainly do have a liberal spin on them, but that does not mean that his work is not a documentary. Some have argued that documentaries must present an objective opinion about a subject.This is impossible.The Italian Neo-realists tried to create a real cinema in the early 1930s and failed.The reason was simple: The camera always chooses to focus on something within the frame, therefore limiting the viewers options not very realistic.Moore does much of the same.He uses his art as a persuasion.He never admits to presenting an objective view, nor should he be required to.Film, documentary or otherwise, is left to the sole discretion of the artist.Moores work is in fact a documentary because it presents facts of a non-fiction story (not like a non-fiction dramatization, such as Patton).Although it may conceal some facts as well, it is not the obligation of a documentary to present things in an objective manner such Related Papers Question 2: what I found out about Politics and the Media Columbine Massacre Speech What Makes a Credible Documentary Magic Realism Film Criteria Malcolm X vs. Skins What are the conventions in films that help to signify Genre Theory Robocop How to cite this page Choose cite format: Bowling for Columbine. (2018, May 03). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/paper-on-bowling-for-columbine/'>APA "Bowling for Columbine." PaperAp.com, 3 May 2018, https://paperap.com/paper-on-bowling-for-columbine/'>MLA PaperAp.com. (2018). Bowling for Columbine. [Online]. Available at: https://paperap.com/paper-on-bowling-for-columbine/[Accessed: 21 Sep. 2019]'>Harvard "Bowling for Columbine." PaperAp.com, May 03, 2018. Accessed September 21, 2019. https://paperap.com/paper-on-bowling-for-columbine/'>Chicago "Bowling for Columbine." PaperAp.com, 3 May 2018, https://paperap.com/paper-on-bowling-for-columbine/'>ASA "Bowling for Columbine," PaperAp.com, 03-May-2018. [Online]. Available: https://paperap.com/paper-on-bowling-for-columbine/. [Accessed: 21-Sep-2019]'>IEEE PaperAp.com. (2018). Bowling for Columbine. [Online]. Available at: https://paperap.com/paper-on-bowling-for-columbine/[Accessed: 21-Sep-2019]'>AMA Bowling for Columbine. (2018, May 03). 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Get custom paper sample written according to your requirements urgent 3h delivery guaranteed Order now Bowling for Columbine Paper On the 20th of April, 1999, in a little town called Lilleton in the U. S, two students from the Columbine High School committed a massacre. During a period of three hours, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold killed twelve students and one teacher, and injured dozens of others. Finally, they shot themselves in the head. Later the police detected over 900 bullet holes in the school (Bowling for Columbine)1. Apart from this horrible crime, the macabre fact is that all of the involved guns which had killed these innocent people were legally purchased, and the huge amount of bullets was bought at the K-Mart down the street (Bowling for Columbine). It is true, nobody will ever know if this disaster could have been prevented by a general gun control at that time, but one thing is for sure: it would have been a lot more difficult to purchase the used firearms and bullets if a general gun control would have been enacted before. Although, a comparison between the USA and the UK, where gunposession was prohibited in 1997, shows that after enacting the law, the crime rate surprisingly went up instead of down, still more than 10. 000 humans die because of guns in the States every year. That number represents the highest death rate in developed countries and can only be reduced by a stricter enforcement of gun control. As a result, the crime rate would get lower and the public would be safer place. In his article What gun controllers dont want you to know2, Howard Nemerov, who not only graduated from Harvard and won the National Book Award, but also got the Pulitzer Price, is presenting a vivid example that the inaction of gun control can end in a failure by analyzing official crime rates of the United States from 1992 till 2004. Coeval, Nemerov lists the same period of crime rates of the United Kingdom, where 1997 had been a strict gun ban, prohibiting civilians of possessing any kind of handgun and compares them to the US. The crime rate was expected to drop, but in fact it went in the completely opposite direction, as the following statistics show. In 1992, the UK had a burglary with entrance rate of 2. 5%, and the U. S had a rate of 3. 5%, one percent higher than the UK. If compared to the statistics of the year 2000, the burglary rate in the UK went up to 2. 8%, and that was after the prohibition of guns in 1997. In contrast, the percentage in the U. S. went down to 1. 8%. In addition to burglary with entry he also compared the statistics of sexual assault of women, robbery and assault with force. In all three of these indices the outcome is similar; the percentage in the U. K. rose, whereas in the U. S. it sank. Furthermore he presents the fact that in that period, where guns were prohibited in the U. K. over 70 million guns were sold in the States. He summarizes that [], a reasonable person is forced to conclude that availability of firearms to the general public is not a contributing factor to any increase in crime. He continues with another fact stated by the Home Office of Britain: during 1997 and 2001 homicide rates rose 19% in the UK while falling 12% in the USA. His comparison shows, that a general prohibition of gun possession does not already mean that crime rates will go down. However, the annually average death rate through guns in the UK is 163 times is lower than in the US. The exact number of shot people in the UK in 2001 was 63 and in the US amazing 11 127 (Bowling for Columbine). In addition to the fact that the US has the highest death rate through the use of guns, also accidents while using guns with no criminal intentions rise the death statistics. In 1996 140 children were killed after being accidentally shot and about 1500 children are hurt by guns every year. Since it is a fact that the US has the highest shooting death rate of 11 127 humans annually compared to other developed countries, 91% of American citizens are for at least minor restrictions on gun ownership. In addition to that, 57%, more than half of the Americans, even vote for a gun ban or major restrictions. It is a fact that some foreign countries have low rate of crimes despite they have less restrictions than the US. For example, Switzerland and Japan have gun policy which is completely different form those in the US; nevertheless, the crimes rates of these countries are quite low in comparison with the US ones. 3 One more example: the Swiss are issued fully-automatic rifles to keep at home, yet abuse of military weapons is rare. The Swiss own two million firearms, including handguns and semi-automatic rifles, they shoot about 60 million rounds of ammunition per year, and the rate of violent gun abuse is low. 4 Lets compare: rifles and handguns are prohibited in Japan, they have a very strict policy as for this issue, and its very difficult for a person to get a gun in Japan. Yet, the number of crimes doesnt lowers, but is even going much higher. The same may be said about many countries which have strict restrictions as for the weapons. 5 So, in the U. S. crime rates have shown to be lower than in courtiers with strict firearms laws. And they werent raised even with the fact that since 1991 in the USA the number of privately owned firearms has risen by perhaps 50 million. Only in 1993-1999 the number of guns privately owned in the States increased on 37 millions. Notwithstanding, the accidents or murders rates didnt go higher. This point may lead to the conclusion that the gun policy restriction wouldnt influence it too, but I think thats not right. People buy guns. And each gut ever bought is a certain threat to eny one of us. Another question is why people buy weapons? What for? Why? What influences people? Why do people bear guns, why do they use them? People are afraid of becoming a victim, they try to defense themselves. And media is the thing which has a great influence at peoples mind. The public depends on the media for its pictures of crime. Many peoples opinion about the situation in the country, about crimes taking place periodically forms on the basis of what they see on the screen, what they hear on the radio. And those horrible events the journalists describe in their coverages make people be afraid of becoming a victim. In addition a great number of such headlines in the newspapers, a great number of such reports on the news. As a result, people what to make sure nothing like that ever happens with them and get guns mislead by the idea that it will help.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Idioms About Distance

Idioms About Distance Idioms About Distance Idioms About Distance By Mark Nichol The English language, rich with idiom, is replete with colorful words and phrases about measurement of distance. Here is a look at some of those expressions, roughly in order of the magnitude of the length being referred to. Colloquial phrases about distances include hairbreadth, referring, as the word indicates, to the thickness of a hair with the connotation of coming within an infinitesimal distance of doing something. The closing of this compound word, first known to have been used in the early 1600s, is unusual, as is the insertion of the plural s in the middle of the plural form: hairsbreadth. Similarly, one can refer to doing something â€Å"by a whisker.† One can also say that that a room or other place is so small, one could not swing a cat in the confined space. Two idioms that do not refer to literal distance but include figurative references to distance follow: To express that someone is not trustworthy, one can write or say, â€Å"I don’t trust [someone] any farther than I can throw him† (or her). To indicate that one does not want to get close to an object or a subject, one can refer to not wanting to touch something or someone with a ten-foot pole- or, rarely, a barge pole (referring to a long pole used to propel a barge, a long, flat boat used for hauling freight or debris, by pushing the pole’s end against the shallow bottom of the waterway). A small but more extensive distance might be described as a hop, skip, and a jump or spitting distance (not to be confused with the much more intimate striking distance, denoting sufficient proximity to hit someone or something), though these expressions refer to more than the literal distance, likely even more than â€Å"a stone’s throw†- literally, the distance one can throw a rock of indeterminate size. Meanwhile, something right in one’s backyard is no great distance. Many people are familiar with the expression â€Å"Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes,† attributed to various American officers during the Battle of Bunker Hill during the Revolutionary War. This admonition to withhold musket fire until the targeted enemy is close enough for a sure shot that justifies the use of precious ammunition had been used repeatedly in various forms for several decades before that conflict, however, and originated with a Swedish king in the early 1600s. It never achieved popular usage, though, even as a figurative expression. An expression from the American South refers to how many looks away a destination is; this term denotes how many landmarks one must look for before arriving. (â€Å"Turn right at the church, then, when you come to a big stump right next to the road, take the next left turn, and it’s right past the creek crossing† represents three or four looks, depending on whether the left turn after the stump counts as a look.) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:20 Types and Forms of Humor15 Types of DocumentsWhat the Heck are "Peeps"?

Friday, February 14, 2020

Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 11

Personal Statement Example I have therefore over time learnt to be hardworking and always desire environments that stimulate my intellectual abilities and this I hope to enjoy at California University. As a result of the cultivated culture of handwork and desire for all round development I attained very good grades in subjects such as mathematics and English as well as sports subjects like Soccer and physical education classes. I also have a strong desire of learning in environments with people from different parts of the world since I believe there is strength in diversity. I therefore am applying for the University of California’s transfer program not only to benefit from the challenges of being in new environment but also to benefit from learning in a diverse environment that will enhance cultural exchange. I believe therefore the educational experience at the University of California will be enriching and fulfilling in terms of meeting my professional goals. I am a strong disciple of knowledge and quality education hence would always strive to get just that and apply the same to the betterment of humanity. I believe the very diverse learning environment that is the University of California will give me an opportunity to independently learn, interact with people from all over the world and stimulate my critical thought. I will make use of all opportunities to gain knowledge which I should apply in offering solutions to our world’s many problems on graduating an Actuarial Scientist from the University of California. By applying my knowledge and offering solutions to issues facing the world I believe will be able to touch, transform lives of people and contribute significantly towards society’s health. I am also an avid sports person; I highly appreciate the value of sports in enhancing the health and stability of society. I studied and attained straight A grades in soccer and physical education while at college. I participated as a soccer player in the

Saturday, February 1, 2020

GIS design and technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

GIS design and technology - Essay Example The paper tells that Geographical Information System (GIS) was created with the ability to assemble, analyze, manipulate, update, store and display information which has been geographically referenced according to the location of the data. For it to function it requires a vast amount of data hence making the projects which use GIS very expensive. Its data originate from images of satellites, maps, GPS data from survey an all other instruments which can attribute data. Before the development of Internet GIS large amount of data of different field like road networks, sewer lines, telecommunication lines and natural resources were useless as they were available in large unorganized states which makes them hard to retrieve and analyze. The creation of GIS solved this problem hence the organization of GIS databases which had all the information needed. Elangovan attributes GIS development is to different disciplines like databases, computer science, computer mapping, Computer Aided Design , remote sensing, geography, Cartography and many more. Different discipline had different functions in the GIS. Databases is used to store, manipulate and retrieval of the data. Computer mapping is used to create maps in the computer while the remote sensing is used to take satellite images. Through the combination of these and other disciplines the GIS emerged a super field which is very helpful. The development of GIS can be generally grouped into four stages of development according to Elangovan (2006, p.10). Between 1960 and 1975 there was introduction of the GIS concept. Due to this fact only few people used in mainframe computers. In between 1973 and early 1980s though many experiment and practice were done, there was little information as individuals were the one doing the research hence duplication of work. There was development of many GIS software between 1982 and late 1990s. This improved the growth of GIS. The last stage is between 1990 and 2000. In this stage there was standardization of the GIS due to the easy availability of software both for ensuring user friendliness and for a platform for working. After 2000 GIS had multi use like virtual reality, mobile mapping and web based GIS. Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1965 was successful in the creation of processing of graphic data through computer aid. This fastened the development of GIS. Agencies in USA, Canada and the UK started using the GIS for the processing of large data amounts. The first to use GIS was the Canada government. The Canadian government used the GIS for management of land and other resources. The US government used the GIS for Geographical Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) which is used to analyze data on the use of land and land cover. In 1970s the Swedish bank on land data used the GIS to make the registration of land and properties automatic. After the development of Geographical Information Mapping and Management System (GIMMS) by the University of Minnesota , in 1963, there was publishing of the Atlas of Britain through the use of information in the GIS. It was printed by the Bickmore and his team of cartography. In 1970 there was publishing of the first multicolour map in Britain. The production of commercial GIS was done by the Harvard Graphic labs in 1970. There was also creation of many cartographic packages like GIMMS, GRID, GEOMAP and MAP. Between 1970s and 1980s there was development of many GIS packages. In 1975 after the first academic meeting about GIS in the UK there was release of the

Friday, January 24, 2020

Paris Hilton: The Eigth Deadly SIn :: essays research papers

Paris Hilton: The Eighth Deadly Sin Pride, envy, anger, avarice, sloth, gluttony, lust, and Paris Hilton. The seven deadly sins and Paris the heiress have combined to overtake pop culture as we know it. It may be a coincidence this blond bombshells favorite number is seven, but in the pubic eye Paris is the epitome of such sins. Who blames her? She’s famous, wealthy, beautiful, human, and everywhere you look. From the television, to movies, magazines, books, clothing lines, and even armature video stores†¦ the list goes on, and so she follows. America is obsessed with Paris. When Hilton’s dog, Tinkerbell, disappeared it made national news. When the heiress herself attended a New York Knicks game, Madison square garden chanted her name, while the not so lucky Knicks were down thirty points in the third quarter. Our obsession with Paris has reached an all time high. Americans are now beginning to look, smell, talk and act like Miss Hilton herself. Pride as stated in the seven deadly sins is the desire to be important or attractive to others and to show excessive love of self. In such a case America must forgive Miss Hilton, for she has sinned. Paris had no problem denying she â€Å"feel’s lucky when she looks in the mirror,† in her December 2004 interview with Rolling Stones. But does America blame her for feeling lucky? She is the epitome of lucky and not to mention a designers dream. As Nicole Jones states in her, Getting the Style, commentary Paris has the body of a runway model, and alien thinness that few bear naturally. Designers are not fools to the Paris pandemonium. Not only can she flawlessly sport a trend, she can also sell one†¦ or even two. With a single picture Paris brought forth the Von Dutch decade and the times of the trucker†¦ hat that is. Paris’s trends have teenagers out spending their cold hard cash on real expensive cotton. As Nicole Jones points out in her commentary, Amer ica loves Hilton’s fashion because it is not too difficult for us to incorporate in our own wardrobe. It didn’t take long for guess designer, Marciano, to realize he wanted to bring in some of the Paris’s pop culture platinum. According to Forbes magazine, after making Miss Hilton Marciano’s new guess girl sales rose about 16%. Paris herself does not even underestimate the power of her and name, and in essence continues to commit the

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Father Flynn’s Parables Essay

Father Flynn has a talent for telling a parable. He is forcefully open to specific events that he recently encounters. As the play opens he expresses main points in the theme using a parable, to teach a lesson of doubt, and to not fear doubt. This sermon foreshadows the dramatic ending to the conclusion of the play but throughout sets a tone for questioning each character and their opinion. As Father Flynn opens his first sermon with a question that insinuates doubt, by asking â€Å"What do you do when you’re not sure?† (p. 1939) I believe he is also asking the congregation to open their minds up to the fearful thoughts of someone who is isolated and doesn’t know where to turn for the right answer, because everything they have been taught has now brought them to a desperate and questionable place in their lives. He is seeking to bring them together even when they do not understand someone or a situation. He suggests despair can describe a type of doubt, and in despair, â€Å"Your bond with your fellow beings was your despair.† (p. 1939) The fear of doubt can isolate someone and seeking approval or guidance can be difficult when someone feels they are alone. He uses the example of â€Å"You seeing the world through a window. On the one side of the glass: happy, untroubled people. On the other side: you.† It is a difficult thing to hit a point in life and question everything you have ever been taught. The person that is growing into an individual with opinion and preferences is gradually realizing that the world isn’t black and white. There are rules that we follow in society or in a church community and as strict as those rules could be followed the human instinct to follow preference in life becomes more important. However, the fear of going against something that has always been taught to be the only way to achieve something in life or be successful in life can lead us back to the beginning. Where our roots began, which in this case Father Flynn uses the example in his first sermon where he says, â€Å"being of nautical discipline, turned his eyes to the heavens and read the stars.† (p.1939) At the moment that there is no clarity in the decisions that can be made in life the seriousness of doubting everything someone knows becomes so scary that they don’t know what to do after starting from the beginning and  still not getting results. When Father Flynn addresses that the sailor,† thought he was on course but there was no way to be certain†,(p.1939) the sailor is left in a state of doubt not only because there was no definitive way to be sure he was on the right path but also further questioning the thought process behind following stars and how reliable it truly wa s. Throughout doubting, unlike in the sailor’s case, Father Flynn encourages that bonding and not turning away from those who doubt circumstances in life is more gratifying than leaving one person isolated. The support, even if it is just one person, as we later see in the play, can be enough reassurance for someone to restore their faith, or make it through a difficult time. In Father Flynn’s second sermon there is no question about what and who he is addressing. The play has now escalated to confrontation about assumptions, and with those assumptions there have been many displays of doubt that is trying to be proven by Sister Aloysius. She believes that Father Flynn is a child molester and a certain child has been targeted because of his circumstances. He is very clear about this when he opens his sermon saying, â€Å"A woman was gossiping with a friend about a man she hardly knew.† (p.1955) Sister Aloysius has made very serious accusations about Father Flynn and he recognizes that her determination and the doubtfulness of the evidence that could go in his favor or against him put him in such a negative predicament that he has to protect himself. Not only does he now doubt her and her judgment of people because she does not see him for who is really is and trust him, but he now sees that she does not really know who he is as a person. He foreshadows Sister Aloysius’ doubt in this next comment from the sermon saying, â€Å"She was immediately seized with an overwhelming sense of guilt,†(p.1956) when she had a dream that the hand of God appeared over her and pointed down on her. Immediately the woman starts to doubt that she has been following the right path and God’s word and has to ask, â€Å"Is gossiping a sin?†(p.1956) This is something as Christian that anyone should know however the woman needs confirmation. Father Flynn later states that through gossip this woman has, â€Å"played fast and loose with his reputation, and you should be heartily ashamed!† Sister Aloysius could seriously ruin Father Flynn’s reputation which he recognized immediately.  She had no concern for him so she did not care what she said about him and how it could affect him and his reputation or even the truth of the matter she was trying to resolve. As a result of Sister Aloysius’ determination to get rid of Father Flynn not only does she not get the answers she needed to be sure of his behavior, she can only wonder that with his new promotion and new placement still in the priesthood that she could have been very wrong. Or maybe that she was right and he just knows how to work the system. Either way she still ends the play with doubt of her beliefs as Father Flynn continues on without doubt that he did well and handled the situation as best that he could. Work Cited Shanley, John Patrick. Doubt: A Parable. Meyer, Michael. The Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 9th Ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. 1938-1969.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

How to Distill Ethanol or Grain Alcohol

Ethanol is also called ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol. Its made from a fermented mixture of corn, yeast, sugar, and water. The resulting alcohol is 100 to 200 proof (200 proof is pure alcohol). In addition to use in the lab, ethanol is a popular fuel alternative and gasoline additive. Because it is flammable, ethanol can be prohibitively expensive to ship, so it may make sense to distill your own. Anyone can have a still, but be advised that you may need to get a permit in order to make ethanol. Difficulty: Easy Time Required: 3–10 days, sometimes longer How-To Steps If you are starting with whole corn, you first need to convert the cornstarch into sugar by sprouting the corn. Place the corn in a container, cover it with warm water, and drape a cloth over the container to prevent contamination and conserve heat. Ideally, the container will have a slowly draining hole at the bottom. Add warm water from time to time as the liquid level falls. Maintain the setup for around 3 days or until the corn has sprouts about 2 inches long.Allow the sprouted corn to dry. Then grind it into meal. Alternatively, start with cornmeal. Other grains can be prepared in much the same way (e.g., rye mash).Mash or mush is made by adding boiling water to the cornmeal. The mash is kept warm to start the fermentation process. Yeast is added, if available (half pound yeast per 50 gallons of mash, for example), and sugar (variable recipes). With yeast, fermentation takes about 3 days. Without yeast, fermentation can require more than 10 days. The mash is ready to run once it stops bubbling. The mash has been converted into carbonic acid and alcohol. It is called wash or beer or sour mash.The wash is placed into a cooker, which has a lid that is pasted shut so that it has a seal that can be blown off should internal pressure become too great. At the top of the cooker, there is a copper pipe or arm that projects to one side and tapers down from a 4–5 inch diameter to the same diameter as the worm (1 to 1-1/4 inch). The worm can be made by taking a 20 ft length of copper tubing, filling it with sand and stopping the ends, and then coiling it around a fence post.The sand prevents the tubing from kinking while being coiled. Once the worm is formed, the sand is flushed out of the tube. The worm is placed in a barrel and sealed to the end of the arm. The barrel is kept full of cold, running water, to condense the alcohol. Water runs in the top of the barrel and out an opening at the bottom. A fire is maintained under the cooker to vaporize the alcohol in the wash.The ethanol vaporizes at 173Â °F, which is the target temperature for the mixture. The spirit will rise to the top of the cooker, enter the arm, and will be cooled to the condensation point in the worm. The resulting liquid is collected at the end of the worm, traditionally into glass jars. This fluid will be translucent, with a color similar to that of dark beer.The very first liquid contains volatile oil contaminants in addition to alcohol. After that, liquid is collected. The containers of liquid collected from over the wash are called singlings. Liquid collected toward the end of this run is called low wine. Low wine can be collected and returned to the still to be cooked again. The initial collections are higher proof than those collected as the distillation progresses.The singlings tend to have impurities and require double-distillation, so once the low wine has been run to the point where a tablespoon or so thrown on a flame wont burn (too low proof), the heat is removed from the still, and the cooker is cleaned out. The liquid remaining in the still, the backings or slop, can be recovered and poured over new grain (and sugar, water, and possibly malt) in a mash barrel for future distillations. Discard mash after no more than eight uses.The singlings are poured into the cooker, and the still is returned to operation. The initial collections can approach pure alcohol (200 proof), with the end collections, using the flash test on the flame, at about 10 proof.The desired proof depends on the application. The highest proof usually obtained from a still is 190 proof. For using alcohol as a fuel alternative, for example, additional purification with a sieve may be required to obtain 200 proof ethanol. Tips If you live in the United States, a permit may be required in order to distill ethanol legally.Stills traditionally were operated close to a water source, such as a stream or river, because the cool water was used to condense the alcohol in the tubing (the worm)Stills needed to have removable tops so that they wouldnt explode when pressure built up from heating the mash. What You Need 25 lb cornmeal or 25 lb shelled whole corn100 lb sugar (sucrose)100 gallons water6 oz yeast